Although the multi-variegated factors for personality development are complex and some components may be biological whilst other influences may be due to particular upbringing, education and cultural norms, personality analysis has been used over many decades in order to predict patterns within diverse groups of people. The psychological profiling of world leaders is not new and one that has been studied over time in order to determine a nation’s foreign policy. Here I examine some of the most fascinating personality types in global leadership of our era.
The Analyst, INTP
Moon Jae-in, President of South Korea
Bashar al-Assad, President of Syria
INTPs (Introvert-Intuitive-Thinker-Perceiver) are immensely polite, well-mannered thinkers who don’t like to impose on others and may find it hard to speak up for themselves in group situations in which they disagree with prevailing popular opinion.
INTPs may also have rich inner lives, in which they might entertain abstract concepts and may find comfort in visual and artistic media in which they can express their thoughts and feelings through poetry and literature. Despite being able to analyse complex political situations with relative ease, and are often liked by their colleagues, they may be sensitive towards criticism, especially if it is presented in an undiplomatic manner or in a satirical or mocking way. INTPs can also become stubborn and dictatorial when under extensive stress, and may begin to become argumentative and unreasonable when they are unable to express their need for care and attention.
INTPs are naturally aligned with ENFJs, who are skilled in reading the emotions of people, and may offer words of comfort to bring the INTP out of their introspective shells, but still share similarities in observance of social norms and being careful not to offend others. INTPs are also careful not to share their true opinions with others until they get to know them well and have a pervasive, indirect style of communication in which they do not directly say what they mean, but may give hints as to what they are referring to.
INTPs are also detail oriented and may come up with specific solutions to a problem set in which other types who are big picture thinkers, might find tedious (such as ENTJs and INFPs). Being able to focus on actionable steps makes them ideal partners with ENTJs in which the ENTJs can champion their causes, and INTPs feel more at ease to let others defend and carry out their vision.
Aside from being highly intelligent and analytical, INTPs are also non-confrontational types in which they will often delay in negotiation instead of resolving the issue straight away. They would rather wait patiently to think things thoroughly on an issue rather than making a decision straight away, which might make them seem slow to act. During this time, their minds may be percolating with different scenarios and examining all possible outcomes of a particular decision. However, one area of caution for INTPs is that they can sometimes be prone towards becoming people-pleasers and may end up agreeing with a situation, especially if their peers demand it of them, in order to build consensus, instead of speaking up for themselves if they have differing opinions.
Despite that INTPs generally tend to be peaceful people and more geared towards aesthetic and scientific pursuits, being surrounded by military men who would like to enhance their military ambitions may affect them to the degree that INTPs may simply go along with it, despite having personal reservations about building an army. INTPs may also internally strongly support the causes of disenfranchised people, but may not speak up due to popular prevailing opinion. INTPs may also feel they have no choice in matters in which they are given responsiblity and may go along with something out of a sense of duty, despite that they wish to do things differently. In this way, INTPs may benefit more from having a diverse group of advisers that also include writers, teachers, artists, scientists and human rights activists in order to enhance their world view and help them fine-tune understanding of their goals through the macro lens of seeing from the big-picture instead of focusing only on the details or working to please others.
INTPs may also be sensitive to criticism, and may view it as a personal attack on their abilities, but should be cautious of acting with indignation and attempting to censor those with differing opinions, even if presented in an undiplomatic or satirical way. Often, criticism serves to give a broader understanding of prevailing trends and opinions, and can become opportunities for growth.
INTPs may also find those with off-colour humour offensive and disrespectful, and may clash with ESTPs and ENTPs in this regard, who have a tendency to be devil’s advocate and entertain many contradictory positions and have an aggressive style of argument that likes to “roast” or poke fun at their opponent. It is much to the advantage of INTPs not to take these words as personal attacks, but rather as a type of entertainment, and instead focus on their actions or come up with clever ways to utilise their own wit to win over their opponent.
INTPs and Health
INTPs also may have a high tendency towards alcoholism. It is important for INTPs to drink moderately and to refrain from the consumption of hard liquors, such as whiskey, soju or vodka. Instead, they may opt for lighter, refreshing beverages such as champagne or organic wines. INTPs may also find supplements such as Vitamin C and Vitamin B-complex beneficial, as those are the nutrients most depleted in those INTPs who may suffer from alcoholism or regularly consume alcohol. INTPs should also take care to drink lots of clean, spring water during the day to prevent dehydration.
The Innovator, ENTP
Kim Jong Un, President of North Korea
ENTPs (Extrovert-Intuitive-Thinker-Perceiver) embody the motto: “Think Different”. They tend to be rules-breakers, not hindered by controversy, are Devil’s Advocates in debate in which they can easily defend a contrary position in addition to their own, and readily think outside the box. ENTPs tend to be sparkling conversationalists and are often full of humour, good will and clever insults using their wit to disarm and charm their opponents.
Two things that ENTPs may dislike are routine and tradition. They may often find themselves bored and longing to go on an adventure. ENTPs prefer spontaneity in their speech and dislike having to read from the teleprompter. They prefer lively debates and might often find themselves veering off-script to do something rather unexpected in which may win the adoration of the public, but which their colleagues might view as inappropriate or unnecessary. However, ENTPs may often come up with convincing reasons why they did something they shouldn’t have just so that it often confuses others.
Despite their many charms, one of the weaknesses of ENTPs is that they may have a hard time sticking to a plan or action or abiding by a contract. ENTPs may also constantly change their minds to the degree that others may become frustrated with them and view them as unreliable. Hence why it is to the ENTP’s advantage to stick with something despite that they may be wanting to suddenly explore other options at the 11th hour.
In negotiation, ENTPs are sometimes more responsive to a competitive strategy or giving them a hard option. They may go back and forth many times, often changing their minds at the last minute, but when ENTPs realise their opponents are not budging, they may suddenly take on a different tune and act in compromising and conciliatory ways. ENTPs may also delay in answering for as long as possible and may avoid having to answer, similar to INTPs, so it is best to set both a soft and hard deadline with ENTPs in order to manage expectations. To appear more reliable and trustworthy, it may also be to the ENTP’s benefit to take a step-by-step approach and not write contracts on general terms, but in specific, actionable terms set by timeline that they can abide by so that they can build trust and confidence with others.
ENTPs may also prefer to use humour to alleviate differences and build repertoire with others. They are people who enjoy the many pleasures in life, and like to get to know people on an authentic level and quick to reconcile and discuss potential solutions. As ENTPs feel more comfortable in ambiguity, they have a tendency to feel trapped when all things are settled with absolute certainty, and they may view negotiations and contracts as an ongoing, lifelong progress that can be amended over time. In this regard, a collaborative or compromising style of negotiation over the long-term might also work the best with ENTPs, especially in regards to the US, as administrations have a tendency to change every 4 years and may be perceived as unreliable, especially if current administrations do not honour previous agreements.
ENTPs and Health
ENTPs, similar to INTPs and ESTPs may also indulge in excessive food and drink under extreme stress. However, ENTPs are natural athletes and might find enjoyment in team sports. As an alternative, instead of conducting meetings in closed spaces, ENTPs might consider scheduling daily hour long group meetings in the late afternoon with their colleagues to discuss matters whilst taking walks together or playing team sports, such as football or basketball.
ENTPs may also be prone to addiction to stimulants or amphetamines, such as Adderall, however these may compound or accelerate existing cardiovascular issues, such as problems with the heart and circulation. Therefore it is important for ENTPs to refrain from consuming an excessive amount of stimulants, refrain from taking drugs such as amphetamines or similar ones in their class and might consider supplements such as CoQ10 and Vitamin K2 which have been found to have positive effects on cardiovascular health and also reverse kidney and liver damage.
The Architect, INTJ
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
INTJs (Introvert-Intuitive-Thinker-Judger) aside from being infamous for their icy glare when expressing disapproval are also known for their intelligence, consummate objectivity and calmness during crisis situations. They are direct communicators and will let you know exactly what they think, and if you are in their inner circle, they won’t shy away from confrontation and will let you know exactly what you may be doing wrong. However, despite that their words may often be sharp, to the point and matter-of-fact without any sugar coating, INTJs often do this as an act to be helpful to those closest to them because in their philosophy, “people do not learn from flattery, they learn from their failures.”
INTJs, like ENTJs, do not like to show their emotions, as that is something they reserve as being private to them, however, this does not mean they haven’t got any. In fact, it may very well be that INTJs often have strong passions and emotions which they hide from public view. They may also be prolific writers and may have interests in many other subjects, particularly in science, medicine and education.
They are also the type when they make a commitment, they stick to it until the end, whether in their personal relationships or in professional commitments, an INTJ word of honour is absolute and steadfast. However, it may be hard to get them to commit in the first place as INTJs take quite a bit of time in order to get to know someone, slow to make close friends, and level-headed when it comes to making long-term commitments and decisions. They are also not likely to flee at the first sight of trouble; rather, INTJs see obstacles and problems as potential challenges of something to conquer, and not something to fear.
These fearless attitudes are in resilient leaders such as German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, who have weathered many crises with calm and aplomb. INTJs, like INTPs are also not overly concerned with outward appearances and most likely, despise status symbols or outwardly flashy shows of wealth, tend to be modest about their achievements and have a keen financial acumen.
INTJs may find natural affinity with both ENTJs and INFPs, as both the latter types tend to have similar but complementary thinking and analysis styles, but may find conflict with ENFJs who may often find the direct communication style of INTJs hurtful. INTJs, like ENTJs, do not like to express their emotions, which ENFJs may find confusing or find themselves unable to develop a close personal relationship due to the latter’s dominant way of primarily relating to people through sharing of their emotions.
In this way, INTJs may share a personal anecdote or tale of hardship with the ENFJ in order to break the ice and build a personal relationship with ENFJs during negotiation situations, so as not to appear cold and unfeeling. However, one area where INTJs may have a weakness is their tendency to hold grudges. Despite not outwardly showing emotions, INTJs never forget a slight or unkind word said against them and may still remember those personal attacks for many years afterward. Hence, it is important for INTJs to understand that sometimes people make mistakes, whether or not it was intentional, and to give people the benefit of the doubt and to see from outside their own perspective in order to understand that sometimes people may be thoughtless or unkind due to their own stressful, personal situations and may be a reflection on those people, and not as intentional disrespect to the INTJ.
INTJs and Health
Due to their insomnia, INTJs might self-medicate utilising alcoholic drinks or prescription pills to help them sleep or relax. However, it is imperative that INTJs refrain from the use of benzodiazepines, GABA-agonist sleep aids such as Ambien, anti-anxiety medications or any other drugs that could have a negative effect on their memory or brain function. It has been shown that drugs that are GABA-agonists could cause problems with motor control, and are correlated to Parkinson’s disease. Despite that GABA-agonists are also paradoxically used to treat Parkinson’s, these drugs work temporarily to stop tremors, but may accelerate the condition through the inhibition of the substantia nigra in the brain, therefore leading to a collapse of dopamine neuronal cells. Therefore, it is important for INTJs to reset their circadian rhythm and instead focus on physical fitness.
INTJs may also be interested in neuroprotective supplements that support brain and motor functions such as Melatonin, Taurine, and Vitamin K2 which also have a positive effect on controlling blood sugar and may have positive effects on those INTJs who might also suffer from diabetes. Vitamin E has also been studied to modulate GABA and glutamate to prevent excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in the brain and may have a profound effect on many neuronal disorders that involve memory loss, tremors, seizures and fine motor coordination and may be the most significant supplement that can alter the course of neuronal related tremors at the onset for those INTJs who are beginning to show initial symptoms.
The Persuader, ESTP
Donald Trump, Former President of the United States
On the surface, ESTPs may appear aggressive or even combative, but underneath the appearance of toughness, make no mistake, ESTPs often have a very soft centre and kind and generous disposition. They may also be secretly sentimental and be moved by beautiful words or artistic ability in which not many people may be able to witness, as they prefer to hide their vulnerabilities from others. ESTPs may also tend to be spontaneous and prefer new challenges as opposed to sitting in an office all day long. They are naturally drawn towards people, and may prefer talking to people in order to solve problems in practical ways that draw upon experience, instead of spending time in extended analysis of a situation.
ESTPs may also have a tendency to go off script, and prefer speaking in a natural, conversational style instead of reading from long versions of edited speeches which may be tedious to them. They are visual and sense-oriented tangible thinkers who prefer action over abstract thinking. They are also not afraid to speak their mind, and have a type of off-colour humour, which might appeal to ENTPs, ENTJs and INTJs and share with them an unconcern about offending others, whilst INTPs and ENFJs, who are more sensitive to protocol, may often perceive these actions to be disrespectful or egoistical.
Despite that ESTPs have a fondness for people and are innate risk takers, ESTPs must also pay careful attention to long-term strategy and would be best aligned with INTJ architects who can balance their spontaneity with careful strategy to offset their risk-taking proclivities. ESTPs, like INTJs, ENTJs and ENTPs often have an off-colour sense of humour and have a direct speaking style in which they often do not like to sugarcoat words. In the philosophy of ESTPs, it is necessary to be thick-skinned and have an ability to take criticism, and poke fun at oneself and not be easily prone to showing weakness and vulnerability. However, ESTPs are also keen negotiators and have a compromising style of interaction, in which they prefer to engage in win-win scenarios behind the scenes, and will listen to any reasonable offer, although they may show an outward perception of all-or-nothing.
Prime Minister Netanyahu faces new challenges regarding foreign relations with the US, and its neighbours, Iran, Palestine and Syria. As a prevailing ideology of multi-lateralism is taking place across Europe and Asia, and through peace treaties proctored by the Trump administration, Israel has reached normal relations with the UAE and Saudi Arabia, and is in a prime position to continue to build positive relations with its neighbours but might face difficulty in his previous goal to extend the borders of Israel into Syria and other territories. Instead, Mr. Netanyahu might achieve more influence and soft power by increasing the presence of Israeli companies into the UAE and Saudi Arabia and focus on the trade of technology, art and research by building research centres instead of building momentum for possible war with Iran and Syria, which Israeli people would not benefit from.
According to Israeli polls, the youth population of Israel would overwhelmingly like peaceful relations with Palestine and Iran, and Mr. Netanyahu could redirect his focus on potential war with Iran and instead pivot towards building collaborative platforms for sustainable living, green energy, vegan food production and art centres with his UAE and Saudi Arabian neighbours.
ESTPs and Health
ESTPs, along with INTJs, may also have a fondness for sweets and soft drinks, which may have a negative effect on maintaining blood sugar. They may also find supplements such as Taurine and Vitamin K2 helpful in managing their blood sugar levels and to improve insulin sensitivity for those ESTPs who might suffer from diabetes.
The Defender, ENTJ
Kamala Harris, Vice President of the United States
This is also the reason why ENTJs might also be perceived as having a great deal of self-discipline in regards to their desires (eg, they might crave ice cream for breakfast, but repress the urge and instead drink a healthy smoothie; they might want to go home and have a drink, but instead go to the gym to release their stress etc.). This isn’t to say that ENTJs are all work and no play as they’re probably known for throwing the best parties where they make sure all their closest friends are comfortable and having fun, but for ENTJs a lot of their confidence comes from their ability of making certain others are taken care of, and that they are defending those who have entrusted them with their care.
Although ENTJs may prefer structured environments, they may soon suffer from boredom or become tired of routine. During these times, it is important for ENTJs to take a break and engage in creative activities, such as painting, writing, cooking or taking up musical instruments. ENTJs also prefer to spend time with intellectual people who understand complex concepts and can teach them something new, or else give them emotional support. ENTJs, like ESTPs, may appear tough on the outside, but often have a soft core, and also possess a lot of empathy for people and animals. However, ENTJs typically only show their emotions or their vulnerabilities to their innermost circle and may find people, such as ENFJs, who are easily emotionally expressive to be manipulative and insincere. ENTJs may also be suspicious of superficial compliments despite wanting to be appreciated and acknowledged for their genuine efforts.
ENTJs also dislike the “my-way-or-the-highway” hardline, competing negotiation styles, or those people who portray an exaggerated position of strength, despite being able to play their game well, and may much more prefer collaborative, win-win situations in which they are approached from a position of rationale. In contrast to INTPs and ENTPs who might have an avoidant style of negotiation in which they like to drag out terms and conditions for an extended period of time, ENTJs prefer things to be settled quickly and decisively.
One of the weaknesses of ENTJs is that they may have a tendency to show-off at times, which others might find intimidating or off-putting. In addition, ENTJs have a hard time expressing their innermost feelings or revealing their vulnerability to other people, even their oldest friends, who might not be aware of their personal struggles and emotional complexities. However, when in negotiation with feeler types (in particular ENFJs and INFPs) ENTJs could instead share more details about their personal lives, such as what inspired them, a personal struggle they had gone through or discuss how their families or children had an impact on them in order to build a stronger repertoire with them instead of appearing as business-as-usual.
ENTJs also may be torn between idealism and compromising their belief system in order to fit into the pragmatic needs of everyday life. However, they are the most powerful and effective when they stick to their long-term vision and not make any compromises on their integrity.
Vacillation in ENTJs might be perceived as a lack of conviction or insincerity amongst voters and may degrade public trust. Kamala Harris may have to challenge the dysfunctional bi-partisian politics of Washington D.C. as a means to carry out her objectives and to be perceived as a capable leader, and not one who is easily persuaded by special interests in order to gain public trust.
ENTJs and Health
ENTJs, due to high levels of physical activity, might be the type more than any other, to develop a dependency on painkillers such as opiates after an injury. However, an extended dependence on opiates could lead to cardiovascular issues along with exacerbating mood swings and possible depressive episodes. Therefore, it is important for ENTJs to refrain from using opiates at all, and instead opt for alternative treatments such as acupuncture for injuries and chronic pain. ENTJs might find supplements such as CoQ10, Melatonin and Vitamin C beneficial in removing their dependence on opiates and other drugs for those ENTJs who might suffer from addictive tendencies, and also to support their cardiovascular health.
The Visionary, INFP
Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia
Despite having many passions, INFPs, like INTJs, ENTJs and ESTPs, prefer to keep their emotions and personal struggles private. Instead, they prefer to talk about ideas and may spend many hours in discussion with their favourite intellectual sparring partners to bounce off ideas.
Although INFPs may come up with innovative ideas, they may face obstacles when implementing such plans and therefore may surround themselves with people who are able to build actionable items to carry out their vision. Hence why INFPs and ENTJs may find a strong affinity with one another.
President Macron and Prince Mohammed bin Salman also show deep sensitivity towards the plight of women and women’s rights in addition to looking towards future energy solutions. The Crown Prince was able to reverse many religious laws that unfairly targeted women, and allowed them the ability to receive a driver’s license to be able to drive on their own without a chaperone. He was also an investor in SoftBank’s Vision Fund, in which the founder of SoftBank, Masayoshi Son alleged that he was able to procure a $45 billion investment from the Crown Prince in a 45 minute meeting.
President Macron has also recently invested in energy development with Russia for the first time in 2018. To further France’s recent investment in the Arctic, President Macron could use this bilateral cooperation in order to further research maglev hydroelectric energy and distribute its usage in the Siberian region. Maglev hydroelectricity is the least known in renewable energy but has the potential to produce the most power and more reliably than solar and wind power. A joint research council between Russia, Germany and France in the Arctic to develop maglev hydroelectric power could serve their joint goals in implementing a diversified energy strategy across Siberia and Europe as a means to move away from nuclear power and overdependence on fossil fuels.
INFPs may feel a natural compatibility with ENTJs as well as ENFJs as the latter types complement and support their natural tendency towards creative thinking, whilst INFPs may help ENTJs and ENFJs to seek and understand their long-term vision, away from the minutiae and chatter of everyday life by focusing on what is ultimately important. INFPs and ENTJs also tend to be unconventional types who are not easily intimidated by “mob thinking” and will often go against the grain of popular thought which makes them ideal innovation partners. INFPs are also not easily impressed by status and achievements and will seek authenticity in their relationships and may have a variety of friendships with many people of different social classes, ages and cultures.
INFPs and Health
As with INTPs, INFPs may also find supplements such as Vitamin C and Vitamin B-complex beneficial, as those are the nutrients most depleted in those INFPs who may suffer from alcoholism or regularly consume alcohol. They should also be mindful to drink clean spring water with a slice of lemon in order to stay hydrated during the day.
The Mentor, ENFJ
Josh Hawley, Senator of the United States
ENFJs (Extravert-Intuitive-Feeler-Judger) feel most at ease when they are needed for their help and expertise. ENFJs may also often be the people who will answer late night phone calls from their best friends if they happen to want to discuss personal matters to give them emotional support. They may relate to people through expression of their emotions and value personal relationships over business matters, which they might find tedious to discuss. However, this is in direct contrast to ENTJs, ESTPs, INTJs and INFPs who prefer to keep their emotions private and only reveal their emotions to a trusted circle of people. In that regard, ENFJs may appear to be emotionally manipulative to ENTJs, and to ENFJs, their ENTJ counterparts may appear to be cold and calculating.
Despite having strengths in building personal relationships, one of the weaknesses of ENFJs is that because they tend to want to be well-liked, they are prone to over promise without delivering. President Biden would like to be known as the “Uniter” who has healed the United States from the rifts of deep division, however, words alone cannot unite a nation without the follow-through of action.
Currently, half of Americans, over 17 million people believe that President Biden may be an illegitimate President who has become President of the US through voter fraud. President Biden faces immense public discord as many parts of cities, including Washington DC, have become a military police state with the National Guard roaming around near-empty streets. In addition, President Biden also faces bi-partisian politics in Congress and must rise above the petty bickering in order to unite members of Congress.
However, the ensuing situation in Congress gives President Biden an opportunity to showcase his role as “the Uniter” of people. By not supporting the current efforts of Senator Chuck Schumer to impeach former President Trump, and by denouncing bi-partisan politics, he would most likely win favour with Trump voters and potentially win them over to his side with his skills in persuasive empathy.
Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer and House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi often cater to the politics of bi-partisian infighting and stagnation, and their actions have been viewed by many analysts as leading the US further into division. Despite that former President Trump has no chance of being convicted and impeached in the Senate, Mr. Schumer and Mrs. Pelosi continue to waste taxpayer money during the Great Lockdown in order to carry on this charade to further fuel the seeds of division. President Biden has an opportunity to rise above petty bipartisan fighting and winning over his detractors by extending an olive branch to his political rivals and critics.
In addition, President Biden could develop bi-partisan committees and appoint those members, such as Senator Josh Hawley and Representative Majorie Taylor Greene, who have been the most critical of him, to head committees such as technology reform and voter integrity in order to build unity in Congress, along with giving confidence to the public, especially amongst President Trump’s defenders, in order to develop an unifying strategy to change public perception of him as an illegitimate President.
ENFJs must also be cautious in not making decisions when they are in extended emotional states, such as making snap decisions when sad or angry. One of their strengths is the ENFJ’s ability to easily understand group dynamics, human emotion and fallibility, however under situations of stress, or when they feel personally attacked, they could also become blind to their emotions and make decisions they later regret. Hence, it is important for ENFJs to take time to allow their emotions time for reflection before making decisions that may have deeper, long-term consequences.
What is at imminently at risk is of the United States entering another era of McCarthyism, in which censorship, blacklisting and cancel culture could further fuel the seeds of division. Many states such as Texas are considering secession from the US, which portrays a deeply divided America that is at a critical juncture to internally rupture. President Biden could utilise his charismatic skills in building personal relationships in order to unify Congress and also potentially win over 17 million+ voters who did not vote for him through his magnanimous actions.
ENFJs and Health
By Sierra Choi
Disclaimer: This article is not intended as medical advice and for educational purposes only. This article also represents the opinions of the author; is speculative in nature and may not necessarily be indicative of the individuals mentioned, nor necessarily reflect the opinions of the organisations the author works with.